Thomas Robert Malthus
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Thomas Robert Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus
| 14 February 1766
| 29 December 1834 (aged 68)
| Demography, macroeconomics
| William Godwin, Marquis de Condorcet, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Ricardo
| David Ricardo, Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi
| Charles Darwin, Paul R. Ehrlich, Francis Place, Raynold Kaufgetz, Garrett Hardin, John Maynard Keynes, Pierre François Verhulst, Alfred Russel Wallace, William Thompson, Karl Marx, Mao Zedong
| Malthusian growth model
The Reverend (Thomas) Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was a British cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert. Malthus became widely known for his theories about change in population. His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As a cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour. Malthus wrote: That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence, That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and, That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice. Malthus placed the longer-term stability of the economy above short-term expediency. He criticized the Poor Laws, and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat. His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. He remains a much-debated writer. Contents
* 1 Early life and education
* 2 Population growth
* 3 Academic
* 4 Malthus–Ricardo debate on political economy
* 5 Later life
* 6 Family
* 7 An Essay on the Principle of Population
* 7.1 Editions and versions
* 8 Other works
* 8.1 1800: The present high price of provisions
* 8.2 1814: Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws * 8.3 1820: Principles of political economy
* 8.4 Other publications
* 9 Reception and influence
* 10 References in popular culture
* 11 Epitaph
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
Early life and education[edit source | editbeta]
The sixth of seven children of Daniel and Henrietta Malthus, Robert Malthus grew up in The Rookery, a country house in Dorking, near Westcott in Surrey. Petersen describes Daniel Malthus as "a gentleman of good family and independent means... [and] a friend of David Hume and Jean-Jacques Rousseau". The young Malthus received his education at home in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, and then at the Warrington Academy from 1782. Warrington was a dissenting academy, then at the end of its existence. and it closed in 1783. Malthus continued for a period to be tutored by Gilbert Wakefield who had taught him there. Malthus entered Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784. There he took prizes in English declamation, Latin and Greek, and graduated with honours, Ninth Wrangler in...
References: * Elwell, Frank W. 2001. A commentary on Malthus 's 1798 Essay on Population as social theory. Mellon Press.
* Evans, L.T. 1998. Feeding the ten billion – plants and population growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. Dedicated to Malthus by the author. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
* Rohe, John F., A Bicentennial Malthusian Essay: conservation, population and the indifference to limits, Rhodes & Easton, Traverse City, MI. 1997
* Spiegel, Henry William (1991) 
* Elwell, Frank W. 2001. A Commentary on Malthus ' 1798 Essay on Population as social theory E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY. ISBN 0-7734-7669-5.
* Malthus, Thomas Robert (1999). Gilbert, Geoffrey, ed. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford world 's classics. Oxford University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-19-283747-9. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
* "Theories of Population". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
* More Food for More People But Not For All, and Not Forever United Nations Population Fund website
* The Feast of Malthus by Garrett Hardin in The Social Contract (1998)
* The International Society of Malthus
* EconLib-1798: An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1st edition, 1798
* Online chapter MALTHUS AND THE EVOLUTIONISTS:THE COMMON CONTEXT OF BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL THEORY from Darwin 's Metaphor: Nature 's Place in Victorian Culture by Professor Robert M. Young (1985, 1988, 1994). Cambridge University Press.
* "Thomas Robert Malthus (1766–1834)". The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.) (Liberty Fund). 2008.
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