5.1. Summarise the expected stages of children’s behaviour. Children need guidance and personal example from the adults around them to help them learn what is acceptable and what behaviour isn’t acceptable. Behaviour is greatly influenced by primary socialisation and children will react and take in how close family members act. Bandura developed the modelling idea where children would copy the adults around them. “There is much evidence that a child who witnesses or experiences violence at home may develop aggressive tendencies.” There are a number of different types of behaviour these include assertive, aggressive, submissive and manipulative behaviour. When a child is showing signs of manipulative behaviour they tend to blame others for their actions rather than taking responsibility. Children who act in this way may have underlying issues affecting them, they could be lacking in self confidence and have a low self esteem, this may also come across in the child as being withdrawn or down in themselves and possibly in others. If a child has self esteem issues then there may be a problem in the child’s life that affects this. “Self esteem and self worth are all about liking who we are. Children need to feel like they belong. This applies both at home and to social situations. If a child is not accepted or feels that they are not accepted then it can have a negative impact on both their emotional security and on their behaviour.” Submissive behaviour is similar to manipulative in regards to self relief and self worth. They are likely to just agree with everybody else and never input there opinions or values as they feel others are better than they are. When a child shows signs of aggressive behaviour it could be bravado a false perception of the child and the only way the child feels they can cope is by acting defensive and by having an aggressive attitude. “The development of aggression was seen by Bandura as being a result of social learning. His experiment with children watching a film of adults hitting dolls was fascinating as the children copied it and saw that as acceptable behaviour.” There is also another theory about aggression and this is the biological theory. “This states that humans need their own space or territory and that if that space is threatened they will react with aggression. Frustration is also seen to produce aggression, observe a small child who cannot do something he or she wants to – the result may be a tantrum or an outbreak of aggression.” The act of aggression can also be started in a child through boredom, the activity or game may not be challenging enough and this may cause the child to act this way to seek attention. “A theory known as the frustration-aggression hypothesis combines the instinctive nature of aggressive with learning theory. It was put forward by Dollard et al in 1939, although was later revised. The basis is that, although there is an inborn aggressive instinct, it tends to be triggered when people are feeling frustrated. This linking of frustration with aggression may explain why some children have dolls or objects onto which they heap their anger.” 5.2. Analyse strategies to encourage appropriate behaviour.
There are many ways to encourage appropriate behaviour. Children learn from the adults around them they watch, copy and take in each action and how adults respond to situations. Ways to encourage a child to behave properly can be by giving rewards and praise for being good. Forms of rewards can be from sweets to toys or even helping out in future activities. Giving sweets isn’t as rewarding as it may seem as this affects children’s behaviour as many children become hyperactive and also they may expect this reward every time but if these are given the behaviour may change for the worse. A better reward would be fruit and a sticker showing the child that they have been good and that they could receive these each time. Empowerment is also an effective strategy to...
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