Adolescence, from Latin word adolescere which means “to grow up” is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development generally occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. It is most closely associated with teenage years. Adolescence is further divided into three more stages, the early (12-14 years old), middle (15-17 years old) and late adolescence (18-20/21 years old). In each stage of human development, there are physical, emotional and physiological changes that happen. This is based from the concept that humans have developmental tasks that should be accomplish per stage.
In the adolescence stage,
adolescents are in critical stage because teenagers are exposed to a larger environment (Macmillan Dictionary for Students, 1981).
Background of the study
Nowadays, teenagers that are exposed to different environment are now engaged to smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages for some reasons. The strong association between binge drinking and smoking among adolescents may be attributable, in part, to the fact that both adolescent alcohol use and tobacco use share a number of sociocultural risk factors. Researchers have found that these factors—including family and peer influences, demographics, advertising, economics, and alcohol and tobacco availability—are associated with adolescents’ initial and continued tobacco and alcohol use (Bobo, J. and Corinne Husten, 2000). According to the U.S. Surgeon General Report (1994), approximately 80% of adult smokers started smoking before the age of 18. Every day, nearly 3,000 young people under the age of 18 become regular smokers and an estimated 2.1 million people began smoking on a daily basis in 1997. More than half of these new daily smokers were younger than age 18. This translates to more than 3,000 new youth smokers per day. The rate of youth initiation of daily smoking increased somewhat from 55.5 to 74.9 per 1,000 potential new users between 1991 and 1996, but remained level in 1997 (the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse). It is said that young people who come from a lowincome family and have fewer than two adults living in their household are especially at risk for becoming smokers and those with poorer grades and lower self-images are most likely to begin 1|Page
using tobacco. Over the past decade, there has been virtually no decline in smoking rates among all teens. Among black adolescents, however, the prevalence of smoking has declined dramatically. Most young people who smoke are addicted to nicotine and were reported that they want to quit but are unable to do so (Statistics on Teens, 1994). In 2002, Komro and Toomey said that alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Alcohol use initiation rates for children rise quickly from age 10 up to about age 13, when they reach more than 50 percent. Subsequently, initiation rates begin to slow again (Kosterman, R. et al., 2000). Moreover, alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. According to Epstein, J. et al., alcohol use continues to be an important public health problem. Recent national survey data indicate that 41% of current 8th graders, 62% of 10th graders, 73% of 12th graders and 85% of college students have used alcohol. Even more troubling is that 11% of 8th graders, 22% of 10th graders, 25% of 12th graders and 40% of college students reported heavy episodic drinking.
Domingo and Marquez found large gender differences in the risk-taking behaviors among Filipino adolescents and youths. Men are much more likely than women to drink, smoke, and use drugs. The large gender difference in risk-taking behavior among adolescents and youths is rather common in Asian countries but not in the U.S.
In our case, The Philippines has no national...
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