1. Populations in Transition
1.1 – Population Change
Explain population trends and patterns in births and fertility in contrasting regions of the world Crude Birth Rate (CBR)= total number of births
The CBR does not take into account the age and sex structure of a population. Total Fertility Rate (TFR)= Average number of children born to a women in her lifetime Case Studies:
Higher fertility in LEDC’s, resulting in youthful populations [2nd and 3rd stage of demographic transition model] ie. Early expanding/late expanding Replacement level for fertility is 2.1. World’s current: 2.56 Lower fertility in MEDC’s, results in an ageing population [4th and 5th stage of demographic transition model] ie. Low stationery/declining Lower fertility rate empowers women
Factors affecting birth rates
Cultural status impacts the ability of women to make decisions about their contraception and thus, their fertility rate Use of contraception is 28% in Africa, compared to 73% in Europe Religion: the Philippines government is catholic and does not provide family planning services for women within government hospitals and clinics, TFR is 3, above replacement Philippines is compared to Poland, which is also religiously conservative but has a TFR of 1.27, as a result of women being empowered and wanting to finish their education first Ethnic status: Indigenous fertility in SA is 2.5, compared to rest of Australia – 1.8. Ethnic status determines access to healthcare/contraception, also determines empowerment of women. Cultural status: Kerala Vs. Uttar Pradesh; in Kerala women are empowered and educated, as a result TFR is 2, as opposed to 2.6. In Uttar Pradesh fertility is 3.8
Education empowers women to be employed, pulling them out of the “poverty trap”, results in women making more informed decisions about their fertility Iran’s fertility dropped from 7 to 2 as literacy rose from 10% to 90% Amount of education also changes TFR, in Guatemala TFR dropped from 7.1, 5.1, 2.6 as women have no, primary or secondary education Extra year of female schooling reduces fertility by 5-10%
In MEDC’s, education encourages material ambition, thus women have fewer children TFR in European countries remains below replacement level, fertility rate is over 95% In France TFR is 1.9, 80% of women between 25 and 49 have jobs
Type of residence
Determines access to medical facilities and often, awareness of birth control measures: generally TFR is highest in rural areas due to the belief of children serving the purpose as “workers” Burkina Faso: Rural, slum and non slum TFR is 6.5, 3.5 and 3 Highest TFR of all states is Western Australia, 2.2: Western Australia is one of the most rural states
In MEDC’s, cost of child bearing is large, tends to discourage families from giving birth to children. In LEDC’s, as a result of this, often families with more children tend to have a lower socio economic status Cost of bringing up a children in UK is 186 000 pounds, and rising. Only including state education Little government assistance to help with children eg. In Italy only 3.8% of GDP on childcare, compared to EU average 8%, as s result women now represent 47% of the workforce, where they represented 22% ten years ago In LEDC’s, lower economic status = more children = less use of contraception In Kenya, half all girls give birth by 19, only 19% use contraception, GDP is $780
MAIN TREND more education = less fertility
Explain natural increase and mortality, and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)= the number of deaths a year per 1000 people Influenced by indigenous inhabitants or an ageing population, sometimes gives an unexplainable answer unrelated to the development of the country Mortality rate are an indicator of the quality of life in a country. Generally MEDC’s have lower mortality rates than LEDC’s.
Natural Increase= crude...
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