Tourism Context and Culture ----- Essay
Name: Yu Huang
ID code: 111356
Lecturer: Jeroen Hol
Table of contents
Today, China is comforted the largest country in the world. The population of China is 1,354,040,000, which is confirmed by Chinese government in January 2013. China as the most populous country in the world has formulated a great national policy for population for population controlling, which is called One-Child policy, in 1970s last century. This great population policy has made big efforts on controlling Chinese population. Undoubtedly, One-Child policy has made historical contribution on the development of China in 34 years. Although Chinese One-Child policy controls the population growth effectively and contributes to Chinese economic development at the initial periods of implementing this policy, the One-Child policy still generates more and more negative impacts on current development in China. What is One-Child policy?
During the administration of Chairman Mao Zedong, the crude birth rate decreased from 37 to 20 per thousand (Appendix, figure 1), infant mortality rate reduced sharply from 200 per thousand to 50 per thousand from 1945 to 1970 (Appendix, figure 2). In addition, life expectancy at birth increased from 35 years in 1945 to 63 years in 1976 (Appendix, figure 3). Until the 1960s, Chinese government encouraged families to have children as many as possible, because Chairman Mao believes in that "more people, the stronger we are". Therefore, Chinese population had a large increase by this encourage policy. In 1979, Chinese government started out an ambitious program of market reform, in order to change the situation of economic stagnation which is caused by Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Meanwhile, China had a quarter of the world's population, who were occupying 7 percent of World's arable land. Two third of the population is of the population was under ages 30 years old, and the baby boomers who were born in 1950s and 1960s were entering their reproductive years. (Lu Li, Weixing Zhu, 2005) The government saw the economy could not develop without the restriction of population. Therefore, One-Child policy was introduced in 1979. The policy consists of a set of regulations on controlling sizes of Chinese families. These regulations includes the restrictions on family size, late marriage, childbearing and the spacing of children (in case in which second child is allowed). The One-Child policy restricts urban couple is allowed to only have one child, the second child is allowed in several cases, which includes twins, ethnic minorities and couples who are both only children themselves. In most rural areas, couples are allowed to have second child if their first child is a daughter. Because of the traditional preference for boys or their first child suffers from physical disability, mental illness and mental retardation. However, the second child is subject to bearing space, couples are allowed to have second child after three or four years they give birth to their first child. After the One-Child policy was launched, "have less children plant more trees" was encourage by Chinese government. Population and Family committee at each level of government need to raise awareness about the issue and take charge of inspection work of One-Child policy. Because of One-Child policy, contraception and abortion are used universal. Positive impact of One-Child policy
Undoubtedly, Chinese Only-Child policy controls effectively on population growth in China. After One-Child policy was introduced, the government set a target population of 1.2 billion by the year 2000, although the real population is more than this target number, the growth rate of population and fertility rate decreased after...
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