Managing Rapid Population Growth
Rapid Population has social, Economic and Political Impacts- Social
Services like healthcare and education can’t cope with the rapid increase in population. Children have to work to support large families so they miss out on education. There aren’t enough houses for everyone so overcrowded settlements -leads to health problems. There will be food shortages
Low living standards and rising crimes
There aren’t enough jobs for the number of people, so unemployment increases. There’s increased poverty because more people are born into families that are already poor. Huge international debts
More focus on young people Fewer old people so less focus on them
Strategies to Control Rapid Population Growth
Birth control programmes
Birth control programmes aim to reduce the birth rate. Some government do this by having laws about how many children couples are allowed to have. E.g. China. Government also help couples to plan how many children they want by offering free contraception and sex education.
Immigration Laws aim to control immigration. Government can limit the number of people that are allowed to immigrate. They can also be selective about who the let in, e.g. letting in fewer people of child-bearing age.
Impacts of over population
Case Study- Sahel: A region of north-central Africa, south of the Sahara Desert
Desertification: Useful land turning into a desert
When there is a population increase there is a higher demand for food. Farmers respond by using the land more intensively by overgrazing, over-cultivation, irrigation and salinisation. This all results in the land surface unable to support vegetation. Soil erosion is then increased by wind and rain and then leads to desertification.
Managing Population Growth- Case Studies
China has a strict Birth control Programme
China has the largest population of 1.3 billion.
The one-child policy was introduced in 1979. This means that all couples are strongly encouraged to have only one child. Couples that only have one child are given benefits like longer maternity leaves, better housing and free education and pension benefits. Couples that have more than one child don’t get any benefits and are also fined part of their income. Also women must be 20 before they marry and men must be 22 before they marry. Couples must have permission to marry and have a child. Family planning help is available at work.
The policy has prevented up to 400 million births. The fertility rate has dropped from 5.7 in 1970 to around 1.8 today. Problems
As china has now applied this rule of one child policy, the people of china prefer to have a boy rather than a girl. Male children were seen as more desirable because they will continue the family name and will look after the parents. Because of this policy, the people have killed their baby girls in hope for a baby boy. In 1990 the ratio of girls to boys was 100-112 at birth. Also one adult child is soon left to prove and support her 2 parents and her 4 grandparents.
Managing Ageing populations
The population structure of an ageing population has more older people than younger people because few people have been born and more people are surviving to old age Countries with an ageing population are usually the richer countries. In a countries where there is an ageing population, there is a higher proportion of people who are dependent
Ageing Populations- Case Study- UK
Why is there an Ageing Population?
People are living longer because of medial improvements
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