China’s One-Child Policy- In 1970, chinas 790 million people face starvation The gov instituted a one child policy
-china’s growth rate plummeted
-In 1984, the policy exempted ethnic minorities and farmers Unintended consequences: killing female infants and a black-market trade in teenage girls
Human Population Growth- 7 billion- population continue to rise in most countries particularly in poverty stricken developing nations
-although the rate of growth is slowing, we are still increasing in absolute numbers
-took all of human history to reach 1 bill in 1930, 130 years later, we reached 2 billion, and added the most recent billion in 12 years.
-the population will double every 58 years
-population growth results from technology, sanitation, food
-death rates drop, but not birth rates
Some people say growth is no problem
New resources will replace depleted ones
But some resources are irreplaceable
-Quality of life will suffer with unchecked growth
Less food space and wealth per person
Population growth is correlated with poverty, not wealth
Policy makers believe growth increases economic, political, military strength -they offer incentives for more children
-67% of European nations think their birth rates are too low -in non eutopean nations 49% feel their birth rates are too high IPAT model- I=P x A x T x S
Our total impact (I) on the enviorment results from the interaction of population (P), Affluence (A) and technology (T), with an added sensitivity (S) factor Population- individuals need space and resources
Affluence-greater per capita resource use
Technology-increased exploitation of resources
Sensitivity-how sensitive an area is to human pressure
Demography-the application of population ecology to the study of humans (study pop size, density, distribution, age structure, sex ratio, birth, death, immigration, emigration, etc Total Fertility Rate (TFR)- the average number of children born per female Life Expectancy- average number of years that an individual is likely to continue to live. Increased because of urbanization, industrialization, person wealth, reduced infant mortality Demographic Transition-a model of economic and cultural change to explain the declining death and birth rates in industrializing nations
-stable preindustrial state of high birth and death rates change to a stable post-industrial state of low birth and death rates Demographic Stages:
Pre Industrial Stage- birth and death rates are high
Transitional Stage- death rate declines due to increased food production and improved medical care Industrial Stage- Birth rate declines due to increased opportunities for women and access to birth control Post Industrial Stage- Birth and death rates are low
Is it universal?
Has occurred in Europe, U.S., Canada, Japan, etc. does not apply to all developing nations, the transition could fail in cultures. That place greater value on childbirth or grant women fewer freedoms Empowering Women and How it affects growth rates- women lack the info and personal freedom to achieve equal power with men. 2/3 of people who cannot read, and 60% of those living in poverty are women. Providing info on incentives, education, contraception, and reproductive health care this will lower population growth rates. Sex Ratios- naturally occurring sex ratios for humans slightly favors males (100 female vs 106 males) Factors affecting population growth- rates of birth, death, and migration Birth and immigration add individuals
Death and emigration remove individuals
Immigration and Emigration- refugees flee their home country as a result of war, civil strife, and enviormental degradation.
-25 mill escape poor environmental conditions
-movement causes environmental problems with no incentives to converse resources Falling rates of growth only means the rate of increase is slowing not that population is falling Wealth Gap- richest 20% use 86% of the world’s resources leaving 14%...
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