Running Head: DECEPTION and SELF-ESTEEM
How Deception is linked with Self-esteem among Male
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between deception and self-esteem. In nature, human beings perceive themselves as much unique as possible and have priority to control other creatures in existing environment confidently; thereby it is crucial that to emphasize one of the vital psychological term, namely self-esteem, and its relationship between deception in a broad perspective. People with high self- esteem have comfortable feelings with a broad range of emotions. On the other hand, those who have fear of being ridiculed, negative thoughts about life, and blaming behavior might also have low self-esteem. In some condition, when people realized that they are deceived, then their self-esteem might change in temporal differences. In this perspective, I postulate that deception is negatively correlated with self-esteem by using two of influential measuring techniques, namely signature size and state self-esteem scale (SSES). Key words: Self-esteem, deception, placebo effect, individual’s feelings, state self-esteem scale (SSES), signature analysis.
How Deception is linked with Self-esteem among Male Collage Students In nature, human beings perceive themselves as much unique as possible andhave priority to control other creatures in existing environment confidently; thereby it is crucial that to emphasize one of the vital psychological term, namely self-esteem, and its relationship to deception in a broad perspective. Self-esteem can simply be defined as how we value ourselves and at what extent we are valuable to others. Self-esteem is labeled as "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it" by Smith and Mackie (Smith, & Mackie, 2007). Furthermore, according to Guardia and Ryff (2003) self-esteem is “one's feelings of self-worth and the extent to which these feelings are externally imposed demands or contingencies versus internally valued components of self”. Moreover, self-esteem can be conceived as a more stable characteristic (reflecting thus, between-person differences) or a more dynamic one which varies depending on the features of the context (e.g., in terms of mains, roles, or relationships). On one hand, since vulnerable self-esteem is dependent on pairing some standard of perfection and some inter-personal or intrapsychic expectation, then it is unstable (Deci, & Ryan, 1995, as cited by Rhodewalt,&Tragakis, 2003). On the other hand, affirmative feelings of one’s inner core self-worth without considering on meeting external demands can constitute secure, true, and genuine self-esteem, so one gives importance on “who one is” instead of what one succeed (Rhodewalt, &Tragakis, 2003). It is fair to assert that people who have low self-esteem feel incompetent, unworthy, and incapable. In that fact, one can easily be aware of the signs of low self-esteem such as, fear being ridiculed, perfectionist attitude, blaming behavior, and so on. That’s why; people who are deceived by others can have such a sign of low self-esteem and it can be evaluated by some special techniques. What is important here is that intrapersonal variation of self-esteem might be formed when people realize that they have been deceived by others. Deception can be characterized as the "act of deliberately providing or omitting information with the intention of misleading" (Krapohl, & Sturm, 2002 as cited by Vendemia, et al., 2005). As it is widely acknowledged that deception should not be included in a decent research by regarding all ethical issues, it is sometimes conducted to measure and then to prevent a significant type of problem. For example, in the Cherek studies (1990), as cited by Wendler 1996, researcher will encounter some prospective problems when they...
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