Throughout the World different areas experience underpopulation and overpopulation at different times due to the unpredictable and complex practise of migration. Underpopulation occurs when there are far more resources in an area, such as food energy and minerals, than can be used by the people living there. Overpopulation occurs when there are too many people and not enough resources and technology to support these people. Countries such as China and Bangladesh have overpopulation as there are often food shortages and insufficient energy and mineral resources to support the population. The increasing globalisation in the world together with the wide and growing gap between the rich and the poor has seen migration increase over the years which means that it is virtually impossible for area to gain an optimum population and maintain it. The optimum population of an area is the number of people which , when working with all the available resources, will produce the greatest yield of economic return, per capita, which means the highest standard of living.
People migrate usually migrate from a rural to an urban area due to push and pull factors. People are deterred from living in rural areas as the work is more labour intensive, crops often fail and there are fewer amenities and services. People are attracted to the city as there is the chance of a better paid, less labour intensive job, there are more better quality amenities and there is the chance to eventually be accommodated in a better quality house. Migration can be such an unpredicatable trend, which can change an area experiencing underpopulation to an area with overpopulation. This is particularly the case with refugees who often flee in mass numbers from wars and conflict in the home nation. When mass numbers of people leave an area this will then experience underpopulation, so it is clear that because of migration, particularly in LEDC's it is hard to maintenance or stabilise a population in the long term. Both underpopulation and overpopulation can affect a country's development in negative rather than positive ways.
Bangladesh has a high population density of 888 per square km due to a high birth rate and declining death rate. This has resulted in 20% of the population being under the age of 9. The GNP in Bangladesh was 220 dollars in 1992, which is extremely low. There is a shortage of industry, services and raw materials and the transport network is poorly developed. There is also a low level of literacy due to the limited number of schools, which has meant that the country has little innovation and instead has to resort to overseas. However because of the low capita in Bangladesh it cannot afford to purchases talent which in the long-term would aid its economic development.
China is probably the most renown country for it's overpopulation. China has a population of 1,211.21 million living on the mainland. China's population density of 126 people per km, is relatively high. However, China does not have the highest population density in the world because of the country's vast land resources. China is the world's third largest country in land area (5) 9.3 million square km, but the country's mountainous and desert regions do not support much inhabitants. Much of the population is clustered along the Pacific coast and in several fertile river valleys that extend inland, such as the Huang and the Yangtze. With such a vast population, China's limited natural and economic resources poses a threat to the population. With increased consumption of resources, the need for fuel has lead to the destruction of forests. Another problem is the ageing population. The percentage of people at 65 or older is 6.23 percent, but is expected to reach almost 17 percent by 2020. This change has significant implications because most rural elderly have no old-age pensions and must rely on their adult children for support. One of the biggest problems for China is the shortage of...
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