3.)Define the nature and scope of demography. Explain the Malthusian Theory of population growth. Can this theory be applied to the Philippine situation today? Enumerate the sources of demographic data. What are censuses of the Philippines available for demographic study?
The term,” Demography”, is derived from Greek words ‘Demos’ which means ‘ the people’ and ‘Graphy’ which means ‘to draw or write’. Thus demography means to draw or write about people. Demography is the science of population. Demography is the scientific study of human population involving the statistical measurement of the size, growth and the diminution of the number of the people, the proportion of living being born or dying within the same area or region and the related function of fertility, morality and marriage. This definition of demography is not sufficiently wide. In fact the field of demography changes according to time, place circumstances. This point has been particularly raised by Warren S. Thompson and David T. Lewis in their book Population Problems (1965).
According to Von Maoyer Demography is the numerical analysis of the sate and movement of population inclusive of census enumeration and registration of vital process and of whatever qualitative analysis can be made the state and movement of population on the basis of fundamental census and registration data. Explaining the scientific nature of demography, Irene Taeuber has pointed out, “With improved data, new techniques and the precise measurement of the demographic transition that is occurring, demography has become science rather than literature”. It was also emphasized by John V. Grauman when he said, “Demography is both an abstract science and applied technology.” Demography today uses scientific methods, the most important of which is analysis. As S.N, Agarwala said, “Demography deals with population dynamics and composition, which covers a wider area. We are shifting from demography to population studies.” Demographers seek to understand population dynamics by investigating three main demographic processes: birth, migration, and aging (including death). All three of these processes contribute to changes in populations, including how people inhabit the earth, form nations and societies, and develop culture. While most of the discipline’s research focuses on humans, the MPIDR is also committed to the specialized field of biodemography. Today, there is growing interest among the public in demography, as “demographic change” has become the subject of political debates in many developed countries. Most of these countries have birth rates below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman, and, at the same time, life expectancy has been rising considerably and continues to rise – a development sometimes called “the aging of societies.” While demography cannot offer political advice on how to tackle demographic change, demographers seek to describe the phenomena related to this change, and to understand their causes. Using reliable data and the statistical processing of these data, modern demographic research embraces many scientific disciplines, including mathematics, economics and other social sciences, geography or biology. NATURE OF DEMOGRAPHY
It employs scientific study and method.
The observations are presented systematically.
Demography makes factual study of population census as the principle method of study.
Demography defines causes and effect relation to events social reaction and in social facts.
Demography can predict about social relations events etc.
SCOPE AND SUBJECT MATTER OF DEMOGRAPHY
The following are the scope of Demography:
SIZE OF POPULATION
The number of people dwelling in a given area at a given time, its comparison with previous period and the future projection are import and element of the size of population. The causes of change, like natality, morality and migration are analyzed with the use of...
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