Data Interpretation and Short Essays
Using the results from A.1, describe and comment on the differences in the mortality parameters (CDR and I-SDR) and patterns of the Black and White American female population. Please justify what are the possible reasons of its differences.
Using the results from A1, we can see that there is the Black American Female Population has a lower CDR and a higher ISDR than the White American Female Population. As we know CDR does not refer to sub-groups that might better represent the population likely to experience the death, which indicates that it takes no account of the age structure of the population. In fact, the age structure of populations can have substantial effects on crude rates. (CDR= ΣPop in age sex group/ Total Population* ASDR) It is obvious that there is a significantly larger proportion of the White American female population in the elder age groups (due to high life expectancy and low exposure to mortality). However, the White American Female Population has a higher CDR at 9.162 than the CDR of the Black American Female at 6.735, therefore, the CDRs we calculated do not accurately account for the age structure of the population.
When we have a look at the data for ASDRs, it is obviously that ASDRS of aged 55-85+ of the Black are much higher than the White, however, the respectively number of females population of the White is significantly larger than the Black, around ten times averagely. Therefore, even if the CDR is higher, it does not adequately indicate a higher mortality rate instead of consideration of ASDRs, which is difference in age structures. On the other hand, ISDRs（the Indirect Standardized Death Rate）of the two populations was 11.479 per 1000 population for the Black American Female Population, compared to the ISDR of the White American Female Population at 9.162 deaths per 1000 population.) Since ISDR is the data results from population standardization, which is a procedure of adjustment of crude rates to eliminate the effects age structure from the crude rates, it is more appropriate for evaluating different mortalities. The method we use here is the indirect standardization which are standardises on Age Specific Death Rates.
This measure is calculated by using a SMR, which is the mortality ratio between the actual observed number of deaths in the population of interest divided by the expected number of deaths were that population to experience the ASDRs of the base population, which in this case is the White American Female Population.
Since the ADSRs of the base population are lower for every point in comparison to the Black American Female Population, the SMR indicates that the population of interest experienced a much higher actual exposure to mortality in comparison to its standard population, which is the White population.
Unlike the CDR, the ISDR measures standardize the mortality exposure of the population of interest by for differences in age structure. It is a more accurate measure to correctly adjust for differences in age structure between different populations and allows us to more accurately compare the overall mortality exposure of the two populations. B.2.
Using the results from A.2, describe the changes in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Age Specific Fertility Rates (ASFR) over time among the Black and White American female population. Suggest possible causes or determinants of the changes. How do the values of Net Reproduction Rates (NRR) for the Black and White American female population in 2011 compare to the replacement level? Refer to Appendix A &B
As shown by the table, from 2006 to 2011, ASFRs of age groups 15-29 of the Black female population have declined, while they increased between age 30 to 49 of the Black during this period. In contrast, during this period, the ASFRs of the White female American population have declined for all age groups between 15 to 49, except for an increase of 0.1 in age group...
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