Running Head: CREATING A SELF ESTEEM SCALE
Creating a Valid and Reliable Self-Esteem Scale
The University of the West Indies – Mona Campus
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for PS28C/Psych 2007 Psychometrics
Professor Joan Thomas
April 21, 2009
Self-esteem is an issue everyone deals with. We all aim to achieve high self-esteem inclusive of competence and self-worth. Hence, the aim of the study was to create a summated rating scale for self-esteem and to measure this scale for its reliability and validity by comparing it to other established scales. The HIDE Scale was therefore developed and its validity and reliability was tested in comparison to that of the already established Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and the General Self efficacy Scale. In carrying out the study, researchers used students from the University of the West Indies The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used as the generalized or concurrent scale (gold standard) while the Generalized Self-efficacy scale was used as the discordant (discriminant) scale. The results showed that the HIDE scale was both valid and reliable as there was a strong correlation between the HIDE and Rosenberg Self-esteem scales. Additionally there was a moderate relationship between the discriminant scale – Generalized Self Efficacy- and the HIDE. These results point towards the reliability of the scale.
Self-esteem may appear as a simple enough word, used in popular language with varying definitions. Yet there remains a plethora of incomplete and inconsistent definitions. When the researchers undertook this study, each was asked for his/her personal definition of self-esteem and the responses were astounding and did not reflect an in-depth level of analysis required of Psychology majors. One such definition was that self-esteem was a measure of how one prided one’s self. Another suggested that self-esteem was simply how one feels about one’s self. Yet, regardless of the source, scholars suggest that all definitions must include a person’s concept of self worth. People are motivated to have high self-esteem and although having it is often mistaken as egotism, it is a sign of positive self-regard. Blascovich and Tomaka (1991 as cited Mekolichick, 2003 ) defined self-esteem as an individual's sense of his or her value or worth, or the extent to which a person values, approves of, appreciates, prizes, or likes him or herself. Self-esteem is comprised of two components: competence and worth. Essentially, competence is how capable or efficacious one views themselves and worth refers to the degree to which people view themselves as persons of value (Cast & Burke, 2002). Macinnes (2006), who compiled extensive work on self-esteem, defines it as the degree to which persons accept and value themselves and develop a basic sense of self-worth. Nevertheless, the most popular definition within the field of psychology remains that of Rosenberg (1965, p. 15), who expressed it as a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward self. Other revisions have stretched beyond self worth to include an attitude-positive, or negative-held about the self, and include both cognitive and affective elements (Rosenberg, 1979; Gecas, 1982 as cited Mekolichick, 2003). Self-esteem, often used to refer to a global sense of self-worth is commonly considered the evaluative component of the self-concept, a broader representation of the self that includes cognitive and behavioural aspects as well as evaluative or affective ones (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991 as cited Mekolichick, 2003). Self-esteem is only one component of the self-concept, which Rosenberg (1965) defines as "totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings with reference to himself as an object." Besides self-esteem, self-efficacy or mastery, and self-identities are important parts of the self-concept. Self-esteem can generally be seen as a stable characteristic of adults and one that cannot be...
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