As per 2011 census, total population of Assam was 31,169,272. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%. Of the 27 districts of Assam, eight districts registered rise in the decadal population growth rate. Interestingly, religious minority-dominated districts like Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, Hailakandi etc. recorded growth rates ranging from 20 per cent to 24 per cent during the last decade. On the other hand, eastern Assam districts like Sivasagar, Jorhat etc. registered around 9 per cent population growth, and for the record, these districts do not share any international border. Total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001. Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darang and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million in 2011, 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026. In 2011, literacy rate in the state was 73.18%. Male literacy rate was 78.81% and female literacy rate was 67.27%  In 2001, the census had recorded literacy in Assam at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. Urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%. Growth of population in Assam has experienced a very high trajectory since the mid-decades of the 20th century. Population grew steadily from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941, while it has increased unprecedentedly to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991 to reach the present level. The growth in the western and southern districts was extremely high primarily due to the rapid influx of people from East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. An estimated 400,000 people have been displaced in the recent ethnic violence between indigenous Bodos and Bengali- Muslims.
Population pressure and problems of Guwahati Hirabati Kalita
GUWAHATI, the historical Pragjyotishpur, is located in between the southern bank of the mighty Brahmaputra river and the foothills of the Shillong plateau is the capital city of Assam and gateway North-East. Guwahati is the business hub and largest city of Assam and North East. Guwahati is also the biggest commercial, industrial, educational and health centre of the region. For Look East Policy of GOI, emerging importance of Guwahati will be phenomenal. For all these reasons there is a tremendous pressure of population in Guwahati city. According to the 2001 census population in Guwahati was 8,18,809 against the total population of 2,66,55,528 in our State, which is 3.19 per cent of total population. The geographical area of Guwahati is 216.79 sq.km against the total area of 78,438 km of our State which is only 0.28 per cent of total geographical area. This scanty geographical area has to support 3.9 per cent of total population of our State. The density of population in Guwahati is 579 persons per sq.km against the average density of 340 persons per sq.km in our State. Again, urban population in Assam is 12.72 per cent, which is 33,90,583 of total population. If we compare the population of Guwahati with total urban population in our state, then we find that Guwahati shares 25 per cent of total urban population. On the other hand, no other cities like Nagaon, Jorhat, Dibrugarh etc. touch 1.5 lakh population mark as per the 2001 census. This is the demographic picture of Guwahati. Population is a pre-requisite for development. But excessive increase of population becomes a problem to a city, State or country. Now, Guwahati is in a state of over-population. But increasing growth of population in Guwahati is not due to natural factorslike very high birth rate and low death rate. The main factor behind this is migration, which is social and economic in nature. Poor people in...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document