Organization of the Environment

Topics: Population ecology, Demography, Population Pages: 7 (1235 words) Published: September 11, 2013
Chapter 10

Organization of the Environment

Two main sub topics of Ch-10

• Organizational Ecology • Institutional approach

Ecology

What is Ecology?
• Greek origin • OIKOS = household/environment • LOGOS = study of… • Ecology is the study of the “house/environment” in which we live. • Ecology is the study of interactions between
– organisms and organisms (Biotic-Living things) – organisms and their environment (Abiotic-Non living things)

Ecology Terms

• Species – A specific kind of something • Population – one species live in one place at one time • Community – All populations (diff. species) that live in a particular area.

Ecology Terms

• Niche- an organisms role in its environment
– A position particularly well suited to that individual who occupies it

• Population Density


Density-dependent
– – – – – Disease Food Parasitism Predation Competition  



Density-independent
– – – – – Temperature Storms Floods Drought Habitat Disruption

Intraspecific Interspecific

Ecology Terms

• Demographics
– Age Structure – Immigration – Emigration – Birth/Death Rate

What is Organizational Ecology?

• Organizational ecology (also organizational demography and the population ecology of organizations) • is a theoretical and empirical approach in the social sciences that is especially used in organizational studies. • Organizational ecology utilizes insights from biology, economics, and sociology, and employs statistical analysis to try to understand the conditions under which organizations – emerge, – grow, and – die.

What is Organizational Ecology?

• The ecology of organizations seeks to understand:
– How social conditions affect the rates at which new organizations and new organizational forms arise – The rates at this organizations change forms – The rates at which organizations and forms die out – Focuses on the effects of social, economic, and political systems on these rates – Emphasizes the dynamics that take place within organizational populations.

What is Organizational Ecology?

• In Organizational Ecology the level of analysis is shifted from – An examination of the environment as experienced by a given organization To – How the environment for a given, individual organization is itself organized?

Contingency theory Vs. Organizational Ecology
• Contingency theory:
– the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the situation, organizations have to change to adapt

• Ecology:
– Advocates inertia, and views change as hard, rare, and indeed, dangerous to the practicality of the organization, and believes that change in not induced due to internal situations but due to external wider environment – Ecology gives more importance to “Survival” and “Environment”, the bottom line is not “Effectiveness”

Ecological Perspectives (Corporate demography)

• Corporate demography: Organizational birth, change and death are most important dependent variables • Organizational populations: All organizations sharing the same general form • Community: includes different populations

Creating new organizations

• Entrepreneurship: Founding of a new organization focusing on the importance of context (Including relational network of founders, knowledge, and resources) • Reproducer Organizations: those organizations started in an established population • Innovative Organizations: those organizations whose routines and competencies vary significantly from those of the existing organizations

Creating new organizations

• Imprinting: New organizational forms draw on existing stock of resources, knowledge and supporting structures and so are always constrained by the conditions present in the environment at the time of their founding • Inertia: Organizational forms are imprinted, and because of their inertia they are likely to retain the features acquired at their origin

Other Population Processes

• Demographic Processes:
–...
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