IB Geography Population notes

Topics: Demography, Population, Population growth Pages: 12 (2840 words) Published: November 16, 2013
Geography Test Notes: Population Trends, Fertility, Migration and Gender inequality Analyze trends and patterns in population using relevant case studies and indicators

World Population Growth

Worlds population growing very rapidly
Population growth is geometric but food production is arithmetic Growth is very recent
95% of population growth is taking place in LEDCs
Exponential growth—increasing or accelerating rate of growth It has started going down due to the fertility rate
This has led to more elderly people in the world

Global population growth creates:
Great pressure on governments to provide for their people
Increased pressure on the environment
Increased risk on famine and malnutrition
Greater difference between the richer and poorer countries
AIDs also having a lasting impact in developing countries as it causes a population decline Crude birth rate does not take into account the age and sex structure of population Total fertility rate—average number of children a woman would have if she expended the current age-specific fertility rates through her life time, and she were to survive through child birth. The poorest countries have the highest fertility rates

In developed countries, birth rates, and fertility rates have fallen Birth rate—the number of births per 1000 in a population
Birth rates get high because
Parents want children for labour
To look after them in old age
To continue the family name
For prestige
To replace other children who have died
Children are net contributors to family income
Birth rates go down because
Children are costly
The government looks after people through pension and health services More women want their own career and have higher status
There is widespread use of family planning
Infant mortality goes down so there is a less need for replacement children A decline in traditional beliefs and customs

Birth rates can be tested differently
Crude birth rate—the number of births per 1000 in a population Age-specific birth rate—the number of births per 1000 women of any specified year group Standardized birth rate—a birth rate for a region on the basis that its age composition is the same as for the whole country Fertility rates can be tested differently

General fertility rate—the number of births per 1000 women aged 15—49 years Total fertility rate—the average number of births per 1000 women of childbearing age Death rates are high when there is a lack of clean water and food, poor hygiene and sanitation, overcrowding, contagious diseases such as diarrhea and vomiting and respiratory infections Conditions associated with poverty

Therefore death rates are highest in poor rural areas, shanty towns, refugee camps and areas of relative and absolute poverty Death rates decline when there is:
Clean water
A reliable food supply
Good hygiene and sanitation
Lower population densities
Better vaccination and health care
In short, rising standards of living
Authorities can reduce death rates by providing access to clean water, food, shelter and sanitation Crude death rate—the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population This is a poor indicator because populations with a large number of aged will have a higher CDR despite being an MEDC Infant mortality rate and child mortality rate is also used for the demographics of a country Infant mortality rate—number of deaths per 1000 people who are under one year old Child mortality rate—number of deaths per 1000 people who are from 1 to 5 years old Mortality areas are higher among areas of poverty

Child mortality rate has fluctuations unlike infant morality rate High IMRs in poorest countries
Causes of infant deaths are often preventable so its an effective testing method Relies on safe water supply, adequate sanitation, housing, healthcare and nutrition Life expectancy is also used to measure the demographics

This rate has been steadily rising but in Africa is has been slow because of the rise...
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