Grade 9 Geography Final Exam Review

Topics: Population, Demography, Population ecology Pages: 10 (2482 words) Published: December 8, 2013
Locating Places on a Map

Remote Sensing – The technology for studying Earth by using images and photographs above its surface GPS – Global Positioning System. A satellite based position-finding system that circles Earth in precise orbits. Geostationary Satellite – Satellite that only stays on the equator and turns with it as Earth rotates (eg. Weather satellites, communication satellites) Near-Polar Satellite – Follows a fixed north-south orbit as the Earth rotates below. Offers complete coverage of the Earth’s surface over a period of time. (eg. Agriculture/marine surveillance) Longitude – Imaginary lines that run North-South; key line is the Prime Meridian, lines span out east and west from there. Latitude – Imaginary lines that run East-West; key line is the Equator, lines span out north and south from there. Major Forces of Change

Tectonic forces – Surface of Earth consists a dynamic grid of slowly moving rock plates, and their movement causes geological changes (eg. Mountain chains created in Canada from plates bumping together, oil/gas formed when Canada’s land was located in a warmer climate) Folding - The folding/bending of rocks to create mountains (Rocky Mountains) Faulting – Earthquakes caused when plates collide

Glaciation – Canada used to be covered by glaciers/massive ice sheets that scraped and scarred the landscape, as well as wearing down and transporting rock over many centuries Erosion – Wearing down of the Earth’s surface

Four Geologic Eras (Youngest to Oldest) – Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrian (alphabetical order) Continental Drift Theory

-Theory that a long time ago, all of Earth’s land masses collided to form one supercontinent called Pangaea; only the continents moved 1. Things fit together like jigsaw puzzles (South America & Africa) 2. Fossils of the same creature found in faraway continents 3. Mountain ranges seemed to be broken by the ocean (eg. Caledonian and Appalachian) 4. Ice sheets found in nowadays tropical areas

5. Age of the ocean floor suggest continents have been drifting away Land Form Regions In Canada

Canadian Shield – large area of Precambrian rock that forms the core of the continent; lakes and rounded rock hills Largest landform in Canada, covering almost half of the land Major source of natural resources

Recreation and tourism based

Lowlands - Areas of low elevation containing plains and hills 1. Interior Plains – vast land mass known as Canada’s breadbasket, gentle rolling hills Dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Alberta/Saskatchewan Oil and gas sources

2. Great Lakes, St Lawrence – Flat & rolling hills, Great Lakes a major source of freshwater

Contains half of Canada’s population
Unique erosion formed Niagara Falls

3. Hudson Bay, Arctic – swamps in the south, frozen ground in the north

Ground is frozen most of the year/no farming
Potentially rich oil/gas deposits

Highlands - Areas of high elevation containing mountains and plateaus 1. Appalachian mountains – Weathered and eroded mountains on the East Coast - Oldest mountain chain in North America
- Deep harbors for freighters, some become major city sites

2. Innuitian Mountains – complex region of mountains, plateaus and lowlands

Younger than Appalachians, less weathering and erosion
Barren, little vegetation

3. Western Cordillera – located on the West coast, mountains, plateaus and valleys

Lightly populated
Home to Mt. Logan, the highest mountain in Canada

Climate and Weather

Climate vs. Weather – Weather is the daily combination of temperatures/precipitation, whereas climate refers to the weather conditions of a place averaged over a long period of time Factors affecting Climate – (F.L.O.W.E.R.Near water)

1. Forested Areas have more precipitation because of water vapour from plants 2. Latitude determines warmth; hottest at the equator because the sun’s rays are concentrated, then as you move toward either...
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