GEOGRAPHY AS LEVEL REVISION NOTES:
Population structure: the breakdown of a country’s population into groups defined by age and sex. Death Rate: the number of deaths per thousand population per year, expressed as deaths per thousand Age specific Death Rate: this shows death rates per thousand population by sex or age groups. Birth Rate: the number of live births per thousand population per year, expressed as births per thousand Infant Mortality: a measure of the number of infants dying under one year of age, expressed as the number of deaths per thousand live births per year Natural Increase/Decrease: the difference between the numbers of births and deaths for every hundred people per year expressed as a percentage HIV: human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks the immune system of people who are infected. Infection is caused when body fluids from an infected person are passed into the body of another. This can happen through unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, sharing needles, or from mother to baby during birth. Aids: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; a group of infections, including pneumonia, TB and skin cancers that strike people whose immune system has been damaged by the HIV virus. Dependency Ratio: shows how many young people (u-16) and older people (over 64) depend on people of working age (16-64). Countries with a high dependency ratio have more people who are not of working age, and fewer who are working and paying taxes. The higher the number the more people who need looking after. Life Expectancy: the average age to which the population lives. It is expressed in terms of years. Male and female figures are often given separately. Optimum Population: the population at which the quality of life of the people of a country or a region is the highest possible, at a given level of technological development. Overpopulation: when any increase in population reduces the average quality of life in the population. Famine: a time when there is so little food that many people starve. Starvation: a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period. Green belt: an area defined by Act of Parliament which surrounds a conurbation. It is very difficult to obtain permission for development on green belt. This acts to stop the sprawl of conurbations. Energy mix: the different sources of energy used by households, industry and commerce, and in the electricity generation industry. Social welfare: the well-being of communities. It refers to the access that groups of people, or individuals, have to job opportunities, housing, health care, education, an unpolluted environment, a safe environment and freedom to practice one’s culture, religion, etc. Underpopulation: when an increase in population could increase the average quality of life. Genocide: the deliberate and systematic destruction or killing of an entire people who belong to one racial, political, cultural or religious group. Asylum: is ‘’the formal application by a refugee to reside in a country when they arrive in that country.’’ Refugee: is ‘’someone who owing to fear of being persecuted is outside his/her country of nationality and is unable or owing to such feat is unwilling to return to that country’’ (UN 1951).
How has the rate of population growth changed over time?
Many of the increases in population are a result of development in technology such as: Development of crop growing rather than simple gathering.
The invention of metal tools.
Advances in plant breeding.
Inventions of machinery that could be used in agriculture.
Advances in medicine and hygiene.
Development in the preservation and storage of food.
Social impacts on world population are that:
There may be a higher amount of children in countries with social services, as the children are payed for. However, they must go into education...
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