...Where do you look when you want to know where pollutants in a lake are coming from?
-The watershed and what is going on inside it (watershed approach)
What does the Clean Water Act primarily deal with?
- point source pollution
The Clean Water Act regulates what three categories?
- Non conventional
What are the conventional pollutants?
- The more common, ubiquitous in the environment that are typically in larger quantities
What are the Non conventional pollutants? Examples?
- less common. Examples: NH4, salt, heat, colors, Al, phenols
What is the largest category of pollutants?
What are the 6 categories of conventional pollutants?
- Biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, pH, Nutrients, oil and grease, pathogenic microorganisms
What is biochemical oxygen demand?
- The amount of oxygen microorganisms need to break down the organic matter in the water (this is why they aerate the tanks at the wastewater treatment plant)
What happens in the water if the organic matter goes up?
- The oxygen is going to go down, and organisms are going to start to die.
Where does excessive organic matter come from in water?
- Animal waste, algal blooms (when they die), wastewater treatment plant overflow, food and paper processing, a fish kill.
Generally what are suspended solids?
What is the primary source of suspended solids?
- Agricultural erosion and street runoff.
...1. What nursing action is required b4 you measure fundal height= empty bladder full bladder make the fundal height higher.
2. What should a nurse do to prevent heat loss from evaporation= dry them up and remove the wet linen.
3. Child with cephalohematoma. What condition is associated with cephalohemetoma = jaundice
4. Why do we perform gestational age in a baby= to identify developmental level
5. What kind of exam do we perform to access for gestational age = ballot score
6. A baby has been circumcised a mother called the unit and complains that she saw a yellow crust on the penile area what do you tell the mother=Normal
7. You are teaching a mom how to use a bulb syringe what will you tell her to do= tilt babies head to the side and sanction the check
8. You are providing umbilical cord care, what will you do to provide this care= dye, open, dry, to prevent infection.
9. You have a patient who is breast feeding you want to prevent nipple trauma what will you teach= latching on, make sure the oriole is in the baby mouth and the baby is sucking onto it. And the baby is not sucking the nipple.
10. When babies have jaundice and are placed on a phototherapy why should we make sure that they have fluid and they get fed= prevent dehydration, hypoglycemia and promote growth
11. A neonate that was born 4hours after delivery mother is diabetic and some of the signs and symptoms is that the baby is jittery = hypoglycemia, check blood sugar and feed them
12. A woman who...
Air Pollution (Endangered Global Commons)
Natural Air Pollutants
Volcanoes sulfur oxides, particulates
Forest Fires Carbon monoxides, carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, particulates
Wind storms Dust
Living Plants Hydrocarbons, pollen
Decaying plants Methane, hydrogen sulfide
Sea Salt particulates
Major Air Pollutants
Carbon Monoxide From transportation Causes headache, dizziness, decreased tolerance to exercise
Sulfur oxides Coal fired power plants Asthma, bronchitis
Nitrogen Oxides Transportation, Coal fired lung irritation, bronchitis
Particulates Coal fired power plants Irritation of respiratory tract, cancer
Hydrocarbons Transportation Unknown
Oxidants Transportation, coal fired Respiratory irritation, emphysems
Power plants, industry
Components of fossil fuel
Hydrocarbons when incompletely burned form: carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and water
Hydrocarbons when completely burned form: carbon dioxide and water
Contaminants: sulfur---(heated)---Sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide
Mineral contaminant---(heated)…Particulates (e.g. lead and mercury)
Nitrogen gas----(heated)…Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide
Many of the pollutants react with solar energy and water to produce secondary pollutants, for example sulfur dioxide...
In this topic we are going to deal about different types of pollution and due to these types of
pollution how our environment is facing disasters and calamities.
Environmentalpollution can be defined as “the unfavorable alteration of our surroundings”
Types of pollutants:
1. Bio degradable pollutants -
decompose rapidly by natural processes.
2. Non-degradable pollutants-do not decompose or slowly decompose in the environment.
Pollutions are different kinds
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Soil pollution
4. Marine pollution
5. Noise pollution
6.Thermal pollution and
7. Nuclear hazards
It may be defined as “the presence of one or more contaminants like dust, smoke, mist and odour in
the atmosphere which are injurious to human beings, plants and animals
Sources of air pollution:
a)Naturalpollution -volcanic eruptions, forest fires, biological decay, etc.
b)Man – made activities – Thermal power plants, agricultural activities etc.
1. Source control:
a)Use only unleaded petrol
b)Use petroleum products and other fuels that have low sulphur and ash content
c)Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates and carbon monoxide and
Did you know that approximately 46% of the lakes in America are extremely polluted and hence risky for swimming, fishing and aquatic life? What kind of pollution is this? It is the environmentalpollution at its best. For those who do not know what environmentalpollution is, here is the definition: the introduction of different harmful pollutants into a certain environment that makes this environment unhealthy to live in.
Environmentalpollution can be the consequence of a natural disaster like hurricanes, but also human made sources like nuclear power plants have been known to cause widespread damage to the environment. The most recent incident was the Fukushima nuclear disaster, which occurred on 11th March 2011 after a 15-metre tsunami disabled the power supply and cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors. The results were devastating on the environment.
Once a large amount of radioactive cesium enters an ecosystem, it quickly becomes ubiquitous, contaminating water, soil, plants and animals. It has been detected in a large range of Japanese foodstuffs, including spinach, tea leaves, milk, beef, and freshwater fish up to 200 miles from Fukushima. Radioactive cesium bioaccumulates, bioconcentrates, and biomagnifies as it moves up the food chain.(Starr, 2013)
The Fukushima disaster did not only affect land only, in...
...➢ Environmentalpollution is contamination of air, water and land from man-made waste that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.
➢ Pollution leads to depletion of the ozone layer, global warming and climate change.
➢ Pollutants are the elements of pollution. A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence
Forms of pollution and its Effects
➢ Air pollution is the release of chemicals and particles into the atmosphere. Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion
➢ Soil contamination includes surface runoff, leakage into groundwater, liquid spills, wastewater discharge and littering. If toxins are spilled on the ground or if an underground storage tank leaks, soil can become contaminated. Well known contaminants include herbicides and pesticides.
➢ Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater by human activities. It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful...
November 5, 2013
As an associate-level environmental scientist, many concerns have risen in regards to the environmental, climate, economical and social consequences. Because of overpopulated cities, there have been some negative factors. The focus to address these issues could be in addressing the weaknesses in already existing laws with stronger enforcement. In the following, I will present a summary report in which I will recommend measures to address the pollution issues and reduce carbon emissions by encouraging alternative means of transportation, promoting fuel-efficient vehicles, how improving roads can help out the environment and lastly, how green spaces and urban forestry are harmless to the atmosphere.
Encouraging Alternative Means of Transportation
As we know, transportation involves the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy translated into motion. Pollution is created from incomplete carbon reactions, unburned hydrocarbons or other elements present in the fuel or air during combustion. These processes produce pollutants of various species and the primary pollutants, in turn, react in the atmosphere to form ozone, secondary particulates, and other damaging secondary pollutant. Research studies show that in regards to the...
...undesirable or unclean elements to the environment causes an imbalance and leads to pollution.
This imbalance has not only led to deterioration in the quality of our lives but has also threatened the very survival of all life. If this imbalance grows beyond a certain limit, it may prove fatal. The ever and rapidly increasing pollution is a matter of global concern, because it is not confined to a particular country, region or land. It is a threat to the whole world and must be fought united.
The problem of pollution is all the more acute in our overcrowded towns and cities. The ever-growing consumerism has further worsened the problem. The biosphere and ecosystem of cities and towns is fast losing its self-sustaining power. The rapid industrialisation of the cities has made them almost unfit for living. They are full of smoke, noxious fumes, dirt, dust, rubbish, corrosive gases, foul smell and deafening noise. The burning of various fuels in the factories and mills releases of a great amount of sculpture-dioxide in the air cause serious pollution. For example, in Delhi, a large part of the population suffers from respiratory and related disorders. In other metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, the situation is no better. The thousands of vehicles spewing smoke and producing unbearable noise in Delhi have aggravated the situation manifold. Delhi is symptomatic of the growing urban...