China One Child Policy
State philosophy of the 1950s was that a large population gave a strong nation, so high birth rate was encouraged, as well as this during that time death rate fell due to better supply of food and medicine. In 1959, all attention was paid to improving industry leaving no attention on farming and as a result killing 20 million in a famine. After the famine, during the 1960s population was seen to be a problem with 55 million born every year. The result of this was the policy ‘later, longer, fewer’ encouraging people to decrease birth rate by later marriages, longer gap between children and fewer children. This did bring natural increase down from 2.1% to 1.2% however this was not enough. This led to the introduction of the One Child Policy:
Limiting the children families could have.
Putting pressure to use contraception.
Family planning workers in every workplace.
‘Granny’ police making sure contraception was used, reported on pregnancies and if necessary enforced abortions and sterilisation. In urban areas it was easier to enforce with rewards of good provision of education and health care however in rural areas people did not keep to the policy as strictly. It was necessary to have the permission of council for a child, but in remote areas it was far harder to check up and therefore more unreported births. Especially in rural areas, where much of the economy is subsistence farming, baby boys were more desirable resulting in female infanticide and baby girls ‘disappearing’. The male dominance gave the only child ‘little emperor syndrome’ being the only child getting the attention. In rural areas because of the poor provision of education and much of the income coming from farming, the government had to offer opportunities to generate income should they adhere to the restrictions. However the penalties for not respecting the policy included: Cash fine or taking away livestock.
No benefits that you can gain from having one child to...
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