Levels of Geography • Me → personal space
• Local → Oshawa
• Regional → Durham
• Provincial → Ontario
• National → Canada
• Worldwide → Global
Five Focus Areas for Geographers 1) Why things are located where they are. 2)Geographical systems; that shape our world.
3) Interactions between people and the environment within they live. 4) Global Connections; between regions and other countries. 5) Special tools and skills geographers use (like mapping, graphing, and aerial photographing.)
• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – total value of the goods and services produced within a country, excluding transactions with other countries. • With regards to GDP, Canada fits in the 11th spot out of the whole world.
• Map – a representation of the earths features on a flat surface. Labeling of a Map
1)Title – states clearly what is on the map, underlined in red 2)Legend – titled, underlined, right-hand side, includes all symbols/colors on map 3)Color/Shading – suits what your trying to show, cities indicated by a red dot, blue for water only 4)Accuracy – be exact
5)Labeling – fine blue or black printing only, horizontal in CAPITAL LETTERS, includes compass rose and black border outline Map Projections
• Mercator Projection - map projection in which compass bearings are more correct - useful for marine charts
- unsuitable for ground level (distorts distances, areas, and shapes of land masses and oceans)
• Winkel Tripel Projection - best map projection for providing a balance between size and shape • Equal-Area Projection - map projection in which the correct sizes of all countries are shown in relation to one another
- used by most nations and international organizations
• Large Scale Map – maps that show a large amount of detail in a small area (used for such things as residential planning, hiking, and military purposes) • Small Scale Map – maps that show a small amount of detail in a large area (used to show general details such as political, physical, and economic information) Three Types of Maps We Use Most Often
• General Purpose Maps - map that contains many different types of information • Thematic Maps - best map projection for providing a balance between size and shape • Topographic Maps – large-scale map showing both natural and human made structures Compass Rose
• compass point – direction on a compass• compass rose – diagram, in the shape of a flower, showing directions and bearings. used to indicate directions on a map• compass bearing – degrees on a compass measured clockwise from 0° (North) to 360° (North)• alpha-numeric grid – grid that uses letters and numbers to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map. • map grid – series of lines on a map that can be used to locate ant place on the map• easting – first three figures in a map reference giving the east-west location• northing – last three figures in a map reference giving the north-south location• latitude – distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees (Equator = 0°, North Pole = 90° N)• longitude – distance east or west of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees (Prime Meridian = 0°)• Prime Meridian – line of longitude that joins North and South Poles and runs through Greenwich, England• Global Positioning System (GPS) – satellite navigation system used to compute exact latitude and longitude position on any place on earth.• time zone – division of the earth's surface, usually extending across 15° longitude that establishes a uniform time • standard time – every place within a time zone has the same time• International Date Line – the line that generally follows the 180° line of longitude, where one day ends and other starts (+1 day W, -1 day E) • daylight-savings time – world wide system of changing time according to season where by daylight hours are extended into the evening when most people are awake Ways of...
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